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**Descriptive statistic**is a statistical summary that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information on, while

**descriptive statistics**is the process of using and analyzing those statistics. Descriptive statistics are distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics) by its aim to summarize a sample.

There are several descriptive statistical measures to mine in large databases in data mining i.e used for knowledge discovery in large databases.

These measures are listed down below.

**Measuring Central Tendency.**

**Measuring the Dispersion of Data.**

**Boxplot Analysis.**

**Visualization of Boxplot Dispersion.**

**Histogram Analysis.**

**Quantile Plot.**

**Quantile-Quantile Plot.**

**Scatter Plot.**

**Loess Curve.**

## Measuring The Central Tendency

### Mean:

- It is the Arithmetic average of the given data.

- For Weighted mean, we use this formula, x=(sum(wi*xi)/sum(wi).

### Median:

- It is a holistic measure of data.

- Given in order, It is nothing but the middlemost value of the dispersed data.

- If there are odd no values then the middle value will be the median.

- If there are even no values then the median is the average of two middle values.

- It can also be estimated by using,

### Mode:

- It is nothing but the value that occurs most frequently in the data.

- If there is only one mode in the data then it is a unimodal data.

- If there are two modes in the data then it is bimodal data.

- If there are three modes in the data then it is trimodal data.

- The empirical formula of mode is, median-mode=3*(mean-median).

## Measuring The Dispersion Of Data

### Quartiles, Outliers, and Boxplots:

**Quartiles**: Those are nothing but the 1/4th of the data, Q1 (25th percentile), Q3 (75th percentile).

**Inter-quartile range**: It is the differences between the 75th and 25th quartile (IQR = Q3 – Q1).

**Five number summary**: It describes five values ->**min, Q1, M, Q3, max**.

**Boxplot**: Ends of the box are the quartiles, the median is marked, whiskers(two lines outside the box extend to Minimum and Maximum) and plot outlier individually.

**Outlier**: It is usually, a value higher/lower than 1.5 x IQR.

### Variance and standard deviation:

**Variance s2**: (algebraic, scalable computation).

**Standard deviation**: It is the square root of variance s2

## Boxplot Analysis

- In this type of analysis, visualization of data is represented with a box.

- The ends of the box are at the first and third quartiles, i.e., the height of the box is IRQ.

- The median is marked by a line within the box

- Whiskers: two lines outside the box extend to Minimum and Maximum

## Histogram Analysis

- It is a graph that displays basic statistical class descriptions.

Frequency histograms

- It is a univariate graphical method.

- It consists of a set of rectangles that reflect the counts or frequencies of the classes present in the given data.

## Quantile Plot

- It displays all of the data (allowing the user to assess both the overall behavior and unusual occurrences).

- It plots quantile information

- For a data xi data sorted in increasing order, fi indicates that approximately 100 fi% of the data are below or equal to the value xi.

## Quantile-Quantile Plot

- It is graphs of the quantiles of one univariate which shows distribution against the corresponding quantiles of another.

- It allows the user to view whether there is a shift in going from one distribution to another.

## Scatter Plot

- It provides a first look at bivariate data to see clusters of points, outliers, etc.

- Each pair of values is treated as a pair of coordinates and plotted as points in the plane.

## Summary

**Descriptive statistical Measure**is a statistical summary that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information on, while

**descriptive statistics**is the process of using and analyzing those statistics. Descriptive statistics are distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics) by its aim to summarize a sample.

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